Energy Storage / UPS Systems
| Strengths & Weaknesses
| Future Development
| Vendors |
Research and development is ongoing for all areas of energy storage. There are advanced sodium/sulfur, zinc/bromine, and lithium/air batteries nearing commercial readiness and offer promise for future utility application. Flywheels continue to be developed and improved, as well as integrated with other DER equipment such as engines and microturbines. Superconducting magnetic energy storage systems and supercapacitors are under development and may soon be available in commercially attractive packages.
Some of the primary energy storage development goals include:
- Lower costs
- Longer life
- Higher efficiency
||Lead-acid batteries are commercially available and widely used. Research is ongoing for advanced batteries.
||Flywheels are commercially available as small individual products or integrated with prime movers such as engines. Significant research is also underway to develop new, larger flywheel products.
|Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)
||Superconducting magnetic energy storage is commercially available using superconductors in liquid helium. Superconductors in liquid nitrogen are in the development stage.
||Small supercapacitors are commercially available for use in electronic devices. Large Supercapacitors are currently under development.
|Compressed Air Storage Systems (CAES)
||CAES use existing technologies but is not widely utilized because of the significant space requirements.
For more information contact:
Avtar Bining, Ph.D.
Program Manager (Energy Systems Research - Smart Grid, Energy Storage, DER/DG)
California Energy Commission
Energy Research & Development Division
1516 - 9th Street, MS-43
Sacramento, CA 95814-5512