| Strengths & Weaknesses
| Future Development
| Vendors |
Below are links to three of the few phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) developers in the world.
The Fuel Cell Business Department of Japan's Fuji Electric Company, Ltd. manufactures and sells the FP-100, a 100-kW PAFC power plant.
UTC Fuel Cells, formerly ONSI, located in South Windsor, Connecticut, offers the world's only commercially available fuel cell system: the 200-kW PC25™ PAFC power plant.
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation plans to commercialize 200-kW PAFC systems. The company conducts PAFC work at the Advanced Technology R&D Center in Japan.
There are few molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) developers worldwide. Below are links to three well-known companies.
Fuel Cell Energy of Danbury, Connecticut is regarded as the leading developer of MCFC technology. The company offers its Direct Fuel Cell™ power plants with power outputs ranging from 250 kW to 1000 kW.
The Power & Industrial Systems R&D Division of Hitachi, Ltd. and the Hitachi Works Fuel Cell Development Center, both located in Japan, develop and design MCFC structures and stacks.
Proton Exchange Membrane
Throughout the world, there are more than forty companies involved in the development of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems for stationary and automotive applications. The following are links to nine of the leading North American developers of PEM fuel cell systems for stationary DER applications.
ReliOn of Spokane, Washington, has patented a modular "hot-swap" PEM fuel cell cartridge and plans to commercialize PEM fuel cell systems for residential and small commercial applications.
Ballard Generation Systems, based in Burnaby, British Columbia, is a leading developer of 1-kW and 250-kW PEM fuel cell systems for stationary power applications.
IdaTech of Bend, Oregon intends to offer a 3-kW PEM fuel cell system for residential DER applications.
UTC Fuel Cells, headquartered in South Windsor, Connecticut, plans to release a 7.5-kW residential PEM fuel cell system.
Nuvera Fuel Cells, based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, develops stationary PEM fuel cell systems for applications in the 1-kW to 50-kW range.
Plug Power of Latham, New York manufactures a 7-kW residential fuel cell system. General Electric is the master distributor of this system throughout the world, except for in Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, and Illinois where DTE Energy has distribution rights.
Proton Energy Systems, with offices in Rocky Hill, Connecticut, develops regenerative fuel cells, utilizing PEM technology and electrolyzers.
There are more than twenty developers of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology. Below are links to five of the leading North American companies.
Global Thermoelectric, based in Calgary, Alberta, is a developer of planar SOFC systems for residential and small commercial applications was purchased by Fuel Cell Energy.
ZTEK Corporation of Waltham, Massachusetts plans to commercialize a 200-kW SOFC-Microturbine hybrid system and a 150-kW SOFC system to produce electricity, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.