Energy Aware Planning Guide (2011 Edition)

Publication Number: CEC-600-2009-013
Date Published: March 2011

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Energy Aware Planning Guide, Commission Report
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The Energy Aware Planning Guide, developed by the California Energy Commission in 1993 and updated in 2011, is a comprehensive resource for local governments seeking to reduce energy use, improve energy efficiency, and increase usage of renewable energy across all sectors. Wiser use of energy resources can lead to cost savings for local governments, residents, and businesses; reinvestment in the local economy; improved quality of life and public health; increased compliance with state and federal goals; and a more secure future. Additionally, strategies to reduce energy consumption promote progress towards aggressive greenhouse gas reduction goals laid out in Assembly Bill 32 (Núñez Chapter 488, Statutes of 2006), California's Global Warming Solutions Act.

The Energy Aware Planning Guide presents a menu of strategies and best management practices to help local governments improve energy efficiency, reduce energy consumption through transportation and land use and enhance renewable sources of energy. Strategies explored include: transportation and land use changes; optimizing water use; building improvements; and other strategies. Each strategy section contains general plan language ideas; implementation ideas; case studies; and resources. TheEnergy Aware Planning Guide also contains supporting information and references to help local governments organize strategies into an Energy Action Plan and estimate the likely energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction impacts of their strategies.

Keywords: Energy efficiency, transit-oriented development, smart growth, best management practices, renewables, local government, transportation, land use, land use planning, buildings, greenhouse gases, electricity generation, adaptation planning, policy, climate change


i Preface

I Introduction

II Overview of California Energy Supplies

III Create an Energy Action Plan

A Steps to Creating an Energy Action Plan
B Energy Inventory Worksheets
C Energy and Greenhouse Gas Reduction Estimates
1 Transportation and Land Use Strategies
2 Building Strategies
3 Water Strategies
4 Community Energy Strategies

IV Meeting California's Climate Change Challenge

A State Greenhouse Gas Reduction Requirements
B Adaptation Planning

V Fully Integrated Planning

VI Energy Aware Strategies

A Land Use Strategies

1 Introduction
2 Land Use Strategies

L.1.1 Smart Growth Development
L.1.2 Land Use Diversity
L.1.3 Transit-Oriented Development
L.1.4 Design Sites for Pedestrian and Transit Access
L.1.5 Freight Movement Planning
L.2.1 Parking Pricing
L.2.2 Parking Supply Management
L.3.1 Complete Streets and Street Design
L.3.2 Street Trees
L.4.1 Bikeways
L.4.2 Bicycle Parking and Facilities
L.4.3 Pedestrian Facilities and Traffic Calming

B Transportation Strategies

1 Background: California and Federal Clean Air Acts
2 Background: Congestion Management Programs
3 Transportation Strategies

T.1.1 Transit Fare Measures and Discounts
T.1.2 Increased Transit Service and Improved Travel Time
T.1.3 Park-and-Ride Lots
T.2.1 Transportation Demand Management Programs
T.2.2 Transportation Management Associations
T.2.3 Guaranteed Ride Home Programs
T.2.4 Ridesharing
T.2.5 Carsharing
T.2.6 Telework
T.2.7 Alternative Work Schedules
T.3.1 Traffic Signal Timing

C Building Strategies

1 Introduction
2 Background: California Building Energy Standards
3 Building Strategies

B.1.1 Improve Enforcement of Building Energy Standards
B.1.2 Going Beyond State Building Energy Standards
B.1.3 Solar Energy
B.1.4 Retrofitting Residences
B.1.5 Retrofitting Commercial Buildings
B.1.6 Efficient Lighting
B.1.7 Shade Trees

D Water Use Strategies

1 Introduction
2 Background: Urban Water Conservation
3 Background: Integrated Regional Water Management Planning
4 Background: Water and Community Design
5 Water Use Strategies

W.1.1 Stormwater Reduction
W.2.1 Water Efficient Landscaping
W.2.2 Water Conservation Pricing
W.3.1 Water Reuse and Recycling
W.4.1 Efficient Wastewater Treatment

E Community Energy Strategies

1 Introduction
2 Community Energy Strategies

C.1.1 Community Energy Authorities
C.1.2 Community Energy District Financing
C.1.3 Cool Communities
C.2.1 Renewable Energy Resources
C.2.2 Distributed Generation
C.3.1 Local Food
C.4.1 Solid Waste
C.5.1 Municipal Procurement
C.5.2 Municipal Facilities
C.5.3 Municipal Fleet Efficiency

Appendix A Greenhouse Gas Emissions Factors
Appendix B Ahwahnee Principles

For more information, contact:

Monica Rudman, Program Manager
California Energy Commission
1516 Ninth Street, MS-23
Sacramento, CA 95814
Phone: (916) 654-4462

Energy Aware Planning Guide I and II - 1993

Report Cover Report Cover

Energy Aware Planning Guide I
Publication Number: 700-93-001
Published June 1993

Download Energy Aware Planning Guide I.
(323 pages, 6.4 megabytes)

Energy Aware Planning Guide II: Energy Facilities
Publication Number: 700-96-006
Published April 1996

The Energy Aware Planning Guide is a 350-page community-development planning tool for local governments. Produced by the California Energy Commission, the guide explores the connection between land-use patterns, automobile dependence, energy consumption and air pollution. Written by energy, planning and economic experts at the Energy Commission as well as by guest authors from the private sector, the document contains a wealth of ideas, opportunities and important information for understanding many of the complex linkages between energy, land-use planning, air quality, transportation and economics.

The Guide is a well-thought-out energy plan that can improve the economic and environmental impact of nearly all local government decisions. The guide is designed to create awareness of the full effect that decisions have on how energy is used, generated or imported by a community, both now and in the future. Energy consumption is used as a yardstick of economic and environmental quality and can contribute to a communities' long-term sustainability.

The Guide includes:

  • A 15-page easy-to-use methodology for assessing the scope and extent of energy issues including efficiency potential, where energy and money can be saved, local renewable energy development potential, where to go to find information specific to a particular jurisdiction and the methodology to help users organize the information for decision-making.
  • A catalog of more than 270 energy-conserving implementation ideas from 41 subject areas. Each idea is supported by model general plan language, discussions of economic and environmental costs and benefits, and examples of successful local government programs. The catalog includes local government and resource contacts for easy follow-up on programs of particular interest.
  • Graphics, drawings and photographs, calculation methods, research data, and design and policy suggestions to help jurisdictions incorporate specific ideas into community plans and programs.
  • Background sections describing requirements of Federal and California Clean Air Acts, Congestion Management Programs, California Building Energy Efficiency Standards, The Integrated Waste Management Act of 1989 and other legislation.
  • Appendices of basic air quality impact information, contacts for developing transportation programs, and the Ahwahnee Principles for planning more liveable communities.

The Energy Aware Planning Guide can be used to:

  • Reduce traffic congestion and air pollution. Transportation, the single largest source of air pollution in most urban areas, represents 48 percent of California's total energy consumption. Transportation and traffic congestion also rank high among public concerns. Adopting effective land use and transportation policies can help urban areas reduce congestion and air pollution and rural areas deal with the pressures of rapid growth.
  • Help implement and support air quality plans. By adopting strong general plan policies and programs to improve air quality, local governments can maintain land use control by reducing or eliminating the need for air districts to regulate certain "indirect" sources of pollution such as large shopping centers or office buildings.
  • Reduce electricity demand in buildings. Despite higher energy efficiency standards and improved technologies, energy use will increase in the industrial, residential and commercial sectors as a result of population growth. Measures exist to cut building electricity demand by 10 percent to 40 percent beyond state standards, which can save community residents and businesses money, and help meet federal and state air quality standards by reducing power plant emissions.
  • Conserve water and reduce solid waste. Reducing water consumption and solid waste generation saves the costs of energy used in water pumping and purification, waste-water treatment, water heating and waste collection and transportation.
  • Create strong energy policies with local economic benefits. Reducing energy costs can increase the dollars available for other community programs. Reducing traffic congestion saves valuable hours and increases worker productivity. Less air pollution reduces health care costs. Energy-efficiency programs create jobs and economic development opportunities.

The Energy Aware Planning Guide was prepared in cooperation with the California Department of Transportation, the California Air Resources Board, the Governor's Office of Planning and Research, and the input of more than 50 local government representatives.

For more information, contact:

Monica Rudman, Program Manager
California Energy Commission
1516 Ninth Street, MS-23
Sacramento, CA 95814
Phone: (916) 654-4462

Proceeding Information

Energy Aware Facility Siting and Permitting Guide

Meeting & Workshops