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Public Interest Energy Research Program: Final Project Report

cover of report Review Of International Experience Integrating Variable Renewable Energy Generation

Publication Number: CEC-500-2007-029
Publication Date: April 2007
PIER Program Area: Renewable Energy Technologies

The executive summary, abstract and table of contents for this report are available below. This publication is available as an Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format File. In order to download, read and print PDF files, you will need a copy of the free Acrobat Reader software installed in and configured for your computer. The software can be downloaded from Adobe Systems Incorporated's website.

Download Report in Acrobat PDF ( 99 pages, 1 mb )



This report summarizes the experience in the United States and internationally through 2006 with integrating variable renewable energy generation, primarily wind generation, and discusses potential operating and mitigation strategies for incorporating variable renewable energy generation. Initially, wind development in Europe, particularly in Denmark and Germany, consisted of smaller but numerous wind projects interconnected to the distribution grid, in contrast with larger, utility-scale wind projects interconnected to the transmission grid in the United States. The differences between Europe and the United States are starting to narrow as development of variable renewable energy generation (e.g. wind and solar) increases and as wind development takes place in more countries. In addition, as more utility-scale wind projects emerge, more countries are relying on common strategies, such as grid codes, to help integrate variable renewable energy generation. This report is a part of the Intermittency Analysis Project (IAP), a comprehensive project aimed at assessing the impact of increasing penetration of variable renewable energy generation in California. A review of the international experience will provide perspective and insight to the IAP analysis team on various techniques for managing intermittency.

Keywords: wind integration, solar variability, wind forecasting, variable renewable energy generation, wind forecasting, transmission, VAR support, reserves, ramp rates, grid code, ancillary services.

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