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Welcome to the California Energy Commission
Public Interest Energy Research Program: Final Report
Integrated Energy Systems: Productivity & Building Science

Publication Number: 500-03-082 (a.k.a. CEC-500-2003-082)
Publication Date: October 2003

The executive summary, abstract and table of contents for this report are available below. This publication is available as an Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format Files. In order to download, read and print PDF files, you will need a copy of the free Acrobat Reader software installed in and configured for your computer. The software can be downloaded from Adobe Systems Incorporated's website.

Download Document in Adobe Acrobat PDF.
(197 pages, 3.3 megabytes Note: Large File Size)




Attachment 6 is merged with Attachment 5



Attachment 11 - Advanced VAV System Design Guide
(228 pages, 4.0 megabytes
Note file size



Attachment 15 - Photometric Files
(46 pages, 2.57 megabytes
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Attachment 21 - Large HVAC Field and Baseline Data
(155 pages, 2.67 megabytes
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Attachment 23 - Small HVAC Field and Survey Information
(167 pages, 2.0 megabytes
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Attachment 25 - Small HVAC Problems and Potential Savings Reports
(316 pages, 7.69 megabytes
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Attachment 26 - Ceiling Insulation Survey Info
(72 pages, 2.21 megabytes
Note: large file size!

Attachment 27 - Skylight Photometric and Thermal Reports
(142 pages, 3.10 megabytes
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Attachment 28 - Integrated Ceiling Research Report
(109 pages, 5.03 megabytes
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Attachment 32 - Outdoor Lighting Survey Reports
(158 pages, 5.15 megabytes
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The Integrated Energy Systems: Productivity and Building Science Program is comprised of six research projects that focus on integrated design topics to save energy, improve the indoor environment, and reduce operating and maintenance costs. Productivity and Interior Environments consists of four studies that examine the impacts of daylighting and other indoor environmental factors on occupant performance and organizational productivity in schools, stores and offices. Integrated Design of Large Commercial HVAC Systems quantifies problems and identifies solutions to variable-air-volume HVAC system performance in large commercial buildings. Integrated Design of Small Commercial HVAC Systems identifies common system performance problems and their solutions for small packaged rooftop HVAC systems. Integrated Design of Commercial Building Ceiling Systems analyzes the effectiveness of lay-in insulation over suspended ceilings, tests skylight performance, and develops an integrated ceiling-system design for using skylights and light wells with suspended ceilings. Residential Ducting and Air Flow Systems develops guidelines for building homes with ducts in conditioned space. Finally, California Outdoor Lighting Baseline Assessment is the first comprehensive study of outdoor lighting practices in California.

Some of this program’s key products are:

  • Reports on the effect of daylighting and other indoor environmental factors on human performance and organizational productivity

  • Design guidelines for large commercial HVAC systems

  • Design guidelines for small commercial HVAC systems

  • Guidelines for designing modular skylight/light-well systems for suspended ceilings

  • Guidelines for builders and information for code officials and homeowners about placing residential ducts in conditioned space

  • An extensive database of outdoor lighting conditions and practices in California

 Key words: productivity, energy efficiency, indoor environment, daylight, skylight, outdoor lighting, integrated design, HVAC, residential duct

Executive Summary


This report summarizes the work performed between August 2000 and August 2003 as part of the Integrated Energy Systems: Productivity and Building Science Program. This research was supported by the California Energy Commission’s (Commission) Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program.

In addition to a program management/market connections element (Element 1) led by Cathy Higgins of the New Buildings Institute (Institute), the program consisted of six research elements:

  • Productivity and Interior Environments (Element 2), led by Lisa Heschong, Heschong Mahone Group

  • Integrated Design of Large Commercial HVAC Systems (Element 3), led by Erik Kolderup, Eley Associates, Inc.

  • Integrated Design of Small Commercial HVAC Systems (Element 4), led by Pete Jacobs, Architectural Energy Corp.

  • Integrated Design of Commercial Building Ceiling Systems (Element 5), led by Jon McHugh, Heschong Mahone Group

  • Integrated Design of Residential Ducting and Air Flow Systems (Element 6), led by Roger Hedrick, GARD Analytics, Inc.

  • California Outdoor Lighting Baseline Assessment (Element 7), led by Sam Pierce and Matt Brost, RLW Analytics, Inc.

Productivity and Interior Environments (Element 2)

This Element consisted of four research projects addressing the central theme of productivity and interior environments in three different market sectors: schools, retail and offices. Each project is addressed separately below.


The overall goal was to quantify the impacts of the indoor environment on occupant performance and/or organizational productivity. Specific goals included: 1) establish measurements of the productivity and energy values of daylighting in the operation of commercial buildings, 2) establish and refine a field methodology that can make a compelling association between human performance criteria and building characteristics, and 3) consider how the provision of daylight relates to other indoor environmental quality issues, such as thermal comfort, visual comfort, view, ventilation, and acoustic quality; and consider the potential separate contribution of those conditions to human performance.

Daylighting in Schools: Grade Effect & Teacher Assignment ("Reanalysis Report")

This project was designed to expand the findings of a 1999 study by Heschong Mahone Group that found a compelling statistical correlation between the amount of daylighting provided from windows and skylights in elementary school classrooms and the performance of children on standardized math and reading tests. The project also sought to investigate additional variables and answer questions raised by the previous report by reanalyzing the original data for the Capistrano district with the additional variables.

Findings & Conclusions

  • The reanalysis study validated the original student learning-rate findings.

Based on this study’s results, if the average student in the district were moved from a classroom with an average amount of daylight to a classroom with maximum daylight, his or her learning rate would be expected to increase by 11% (or by 21% from no daylight to maximum daylight).

  • There was no teacher assignment in the original results.

  • The daylighting effect does not vary by grade.

  • Physical conditions in the classroom do not appear to affect student attendance.

When student attendance is used as a proxy measurement of student health, there is not an obvious connection between the physical classroom characteristics considered and student health.

  • There are certain physical classroom characteristics teachers most prefer.

Teachers had an almost universal desire for more space, a good location, quiet environment, lots of storage and water in the classroom. Windows, daylight and views were desirable but were not driving preferences. Environmental control was also important.

  • Of many variables studied, only daylighting showed a strong correlation to improved learning.

A wide range of factors potentially affect student test scores, but of the physical variables studied (including classroom type, HVAC type, operable windows and daylighting) only daylighting showed a strong and consistent correlation to improved standardized test scores. All these results were observed with 99.9% statistical certainty.

  • Overall, these reanalysis efforts affirm that the effect of daylight on student performance is highly significant.

Such consistent results present a powerful argument that there is a valid and predictable effect of daylighting on student performance. The addition of more information to the statistical models did very little to change the predicted impact of daylight on student performance.


  • Distribution and publication of findings. Since publication in February 2001, the full report has been downloaded more than 5,500 times from the Institute’s public PIER website, and a summary version has been downloaded more than 4,100 times. In addition, the study’s methodology and findings have been widely published in key industry journals, such as ASHRAE Journal and IESNA Journal.

  • LAUSD/CHPS. This study’s findings contributed to the Los Angeles Unified School District’s decision to adopt the Coalition for High Performance Schools (CHPS) guidelines as a standard for their district, which will result in increased use of daylighting in their new schools.

  • California utilities are promoting the project’s findings. PG&E’s Pacific Energy Center hosted a training class for design professionals in April 2003, titled "Lighting for Schools" communicated results from Daylighting in Schools Reanalysis study and Healthy Schools study.

Healthy Schools: Daylighting, Lighting, and Ventilation

This project was designed to extend the "Reanalysis Report" described above. The researchers selected the Fresno Unified School District as its study participant, and collected and analyzed data during the 2001-2002 school year from 450 classrooms at 36 school sites; the study included 8,500 children in grades 3 to 6. This study participant was significantly different from the previous participant in several key areas: no skylights resulting in less diversity in daylighting strategies, a valley climate rather than coastal climate, and a larger proportion of lower income and immigrant children within the district.

Findings & Conclusions

  • The Daylight Code variable used in the previous schools studies was not significant in predicting student performance for Fresno.  

The holistic Daylight Code had the least explanatory power of the variables considered, and lowest significance level when tested in a model similar to the Capistrano study. Thus, the researchers could not replicate the Capistrano findings based on a similar model structure.

  • The window characteristics have a great deal of explanatory power relative to student performance.

Variables describing the physical conditions of classrooms, most notably the window characteristics, were as significant and of equal or greater magnitude as teacher characteristics, number of computers, or attendance rates in predicting student performance. Of all the types of physical characteristics of classrooms considered in the study, the group of window characteristics seemed to be the most consistent and robust in explaining student performance.

  • The visual environment is extremely important for learning.

View: The importance of a window view was one of the most consistent findings of all models tested.

Glare: Sources of glare from windows negatively impact student learning.

Sun: Direct sun penetration into classrooms, especially through unshaded east or south facing windows, is consistently associated with negative student performance, likely causing both glare and thermal discomfort.

Control: When teachers do not have control of their windows via blinds or curtains, student performance is negatively affected. Blinds or curtains allow teachers to control the intermittent sources of glare or visual distraction through their windows.

  • The acoustic environment is extremely important for learning.

Situations that compromise student focus on the lessons at hand, such as reverberant spaces, annoying equipment sounds, or excessive noise from outside the classroom, have measurable association with lower learning rates.

  • Poor ventilation and indoor air quality appear to negatively affect student performance.

However, in FUSD these issues are almost hopelessly intertwined with thermal comfort, outdoor air quality and acoustic conditions. Teachers often must choose to improve one while making other aspects of the classroom worse.

  • Some classrooms with a high Daylight Code are performing extremely well in Fresno.

Classrooms with a combination of ample view and no window glare or sunlight penetration are associated with 15% to 25% improvement in student learning rates, comparable to the findings of the Capistrano study.

  • Operable windows were not found to be associated with better student performance in Fresno.

In many statistical models that we tested operable windows were found to be associated with negative student performance. On the other hand, lack of teacher control of the ventilation was found to be positively associated with student performance. This implies that continuous mechanical ventilation may be preferable to reliance on mechanical or natural ventilation in Fresno, perhaps due to the city’s high incidence of air pollution, dust, and asthma.


  • "Windows and Classrooms: A Study of Student Performance and the Indoor Environment," a report describing the project methodology, data collection, analysis, findings and conclusions, and potential energy savings.

  • California utilities are promoting the project’s findings.  PG&E’s Pacific Energy Center hosted a training class for design professionals in April 2003, titled "Lighting for Schools" communicated results from Daylighting in Schools Reanalysis study and Healthy Schools study.

Daylighting and Retail Sales: Replication Study

A 1998 study by Heschong Mahone Group found that, for the retail chain studied and all other things being equal, stores with skylighting experienced up to a 40% increase in sales over those without skylighting. The objective of this new project was to validate the previous findings by conducting a replication study and to further explore the impacts of daylighting and other indoor environmental characteristics on sales performance. The retail participant in this new project had 74 sites in California appropriate for the study, including 23 daylit sites. The study period was from retail activity 1999 through 2001.

Findings & Conclusions

  • Daylit stores in this chain experienced an average of 0% to 6% increase in sales compared to non-daylit stores.

The replication model did not find that the variable "daylight yes/no" predicted greater sales in daylit stores. However, the more detailed "daylight hours per year" model found that there was a significant dose/response relationship between number of daylight hours per year and the magnitude of the increase in sales, once the size of the parking area for each store was considered.

  • Daylight was found to be as reliable a predictor of sales (as indicated by the partial R2 for the variables) as other more traditional measures of retail potential, such as parking area, number of local competitors, and neighborhood demographics.

  • During the California power crisis of 2001, when the chain operated its stores at half lighting power, its daylit stores had an average 5.5% increase in sales relative to its non-daylit stores.

The magnitude of the effect varied with the two time periods studied. During the 10-month period of the power crisis, when all stores (both within the chain and competitors’ stores) operated their electric lights at about half power, the average daylighting effect was found to be the highest, alternatively estimated at +5.7% (log model) or +5.2% (linear model). During the previous 24-month period, when there was less difference in net illumination levels between daylit and non-daylit stores, the average daylight effect was found to be less, at +1.1% (log model) or -0.3% (linear model).

  • Along with an increase in average monthly sales, the daylit stores were also found to have 1% to 2% increase in the number of transactions per month.

  • Stores with the most favorable daylighting conditions had a 40% increase in sales compared to non-daylit stores, consistent with the findings of the 1998 study.

A bound of a theoretical daylight effect for this chain was detailed. For individual stores in this study with the most favorable daylighting conditions (longest hours of daylight, ample parking areas) the daylighting effect was found to be on the order of 40%. This upper bound is consistent with the previous retail study findings.

  • No seasonal patterns to this daylight effect were observed.

The relationship between increased sales and seasonal availability of daylight was examined in models that compared the change in performance between a summer month (July) and a winter month (January). No seasonal variation in the models was detected.


  • "Daylight and Retail Sales: Replication Study," a report that describes the project methodology, data collection, analysis, findings and conclusions, and potential energy savings.

  • Title 24. The strength of the original retail study findings helped pave acceptance of the Title 24 code proposal to require skylights with integrated controls in some building types (this code proposal is described in the Element 5 section of this report).

  • National retail chains. Over a dozen large national retail chains are known to be currently building skylit stores or developing prototypes to investigate how skylighting could best be applied to their format. In addition, in 2003 the head of store planning for a national department store corporation and seven other major retailers have consulted Heschong Mahone Group for advice on including skylighting in their stores. The PIER research greatly facilitates their discussions as a national leader and resource on daylighting with market players considering daylight designs.

  • California utilities are promoting the project’s findings. PG&E’s Pacific Energy Center hosted a training class for design professionals, titled "Daylighting Basics for Lighting Designers and Electrical Engineers," which included a presentation of E2’s results.

Healthy Offices: Daylighting, Lighting and Ventilation

This project carried forward earlier studies on the interaction of daylighting and productivity by extending those inquiries to office buildings. The basic hypothesis was that daylight has a positive influence on the performance of office workers.

The research team collected information about the environmental conditions in each office workers’ cubicle and surrounding areas. They carried out two distinct studies, a Call Center study and a Desktop study. The Call Center study used pre-existing metrics to correlate performance data from 100 employees to indoor environmental conditions. The Desktop study used individual performance data collected from 201 employees via short computerized tests in daylit and non-daylit environments. Both approaches involved collecting environmental data for use in the analysis, including air temperature, ventilation, view, daylight and electric light levels.

Findings & Conclusions

  • Daylight illumination levels were significant and positive in predicting better performance on a test of mental function and attention.

The Backwards Numbers test is widely accepted in psychological research as a valid test of mental function and attention span. An increase in daylight illumination levels from 1 to 20 footcandles resulted in a 13% improvement in performance in the ability to instantly recall strings of numbers.

  • Daylight illumination levels were not significant for the visual acuity tests or long-term memory test. Daylight illumination levels were found to have an association with a slight decrease in Call Center performance for one of three models.

Daylight illumination was not found significant in any of the other models considered, with the exception of the November daily model for the Call Center, where an increase in daylight illumination from 1 to 20 footcandles was found to be associated with a 6% decrease in performance, or a 23-second increase in daily average call handling time.

  • An ample and pleasant view was consistently associated with better office worker performance.

A better view was the most consistent explanatory variable associated with improved office worker performance, in six out of eight outcomes considered. Workers in the Call Center were found to process calls 6% to 12% faster when they had the best possible view versus those with no view. Office workers were found to perform 10% to 25% better on tests of mental function and memory recall when they had the best possible view versus those with no view.

  • Glare from windows was associated with decreased office worker performance.

In the Desktop study, the greater the glare potential from windows, the worse the office worker performance was on three mental function tests, decreasing performance by 15% to 21%.

  • Ventilation and indoor air temperature varied in their impacts on worker performance.

In the analysis of Call Center performance on an hourly basis, increased outside air delivery to the center was associated with improved performance for the workers. In addition, in both the hourly and the daily Call Center analysis, a fully open floor register, which increases local ventilation rates for individual workers, was found to be associated with 3% to 10% faster performance by those workers than those that had their fully closed. In the Desktop study, workers who left their floor registers full opened performed 17% better on one test of mental function, while their performance was worse for two tests of visual acuity and dexterity. Local ventilation rates in the SMUD Customer Service Center are highly complex, and would require more detailed study to understand the implications of these findings.  

Indoor air temperatures stayed within comfort range throughout both studies, varying by only 6°F to 8°F. Increases in local air temperature by 2°F were found to be associated with improvements in worker performance in the Call Center and on the long term memory test, but a decrease in performance on one test of visual acuity. Indoor air temperature is also a function of ventilation rates, supply air temperatures, and local solar radiation effects, and so is likely to be confounded by interactions with these other variables.  Further study would be required to isolate these interactive effects. 

  • The natural log of illumination and the daylight illumination level of the previous hour had the best fit in predicting performance.

In various models tested, the natural log of both daylight and electric light illumination levels was found to have the best fit in the models of both Call Center and office worker performance. In addition, for the Call Center November hourly models, a one-hour time lag of daylight illumination levels was found to provide the best model fit, even though this explanatory variable was not found significant in the final model. This implies that illumination levels can be expected to have dimensioning effects as they increase in intensity, and that any effects on human performance are likely to have a physiological component (delayed effect) in addition to a visual component (instantaneous effect).

  • Physical comfort conditions were an important component of models predicting office worker performance.

The physical comfort conditions measured at employees’ workstations were found to provide important explanatory information about their performance. The combination of physical comfort conditions considered-illumination, view, ventilation and temperature-typically provided one-eighth to one-third of the explanatory power of the models, while demographic information provided the remaining two-thirds to seven-eighths of the models’ explanatory power.

  • Office worker self reports of better health conditions were strongly associated with better views.

Those workers in the Desktop study with the best views were the least likely to report negative health symptoms. Reports of increased fatigue were most strongly associated with a lack of view.


  • "Windows and Offices: A Study of Office Worker Performance and the Indoor Environment," a report that describes the project methodology, data collection, analysis, findings and conclusions, and potential energy savings.

  • California utilities are promoting the project’s findings. PG&E’s Pacific Energy Center hosted a training class for design professionals, titled "Daylighting Basics for Lighting Designers and Electrical Engineers," which included a presentation of E2’s results.

Estimated Statewide Energy Impacts

Based on a 10% first year penetration with an increase of 1% per year over the next 10 years the following savings are achievable from the combination of daylighting and lighting controls:

  • Schools - first year electricity savings of 330 MWh, 10 year cumulative electricity savings of 23,595 MWh equal to a cumulative cost savings of $3 million.

  • Offices - first year electricity savings of 2,483 MWh, 10 year cumulative electricity savings of 177,535 MWh equal to a cumulative cost savings of $24 million.

  • Retail - first year electricity savings of 7,867 MWh, 10 year cumulative electricity savings of 562,467 MWh equal to a cumulative cost savings of $77 million.

  • Total - total statewide benefits for these three sectors - first year electricity savings of 10,466 MWh, 10 year cumulative electricity savings of 748,397 MWh equal to a cumulative cost savings of $103 million.

Integrated Design of Large Commercial HVAC Systems (Element 3)

This research element focused on building-science solutions to support successful system integration and improved efficiency and performance of HVAC systems in large buildings (100,000 ft2 and larger).


The Element’s overall objective was to identify opportunities to improve the air-side energy efficiency of large HVAC systems through design solutions and strategies for California buildings over 100,000 ft2. A specific technical objective was to develop guidelines for design that can improve the overall HVAC efficiency of those facilities by 25%.  

Findings & Conclusions

  • Variable-air-volume (VAV) reheat systems serve approximately 50% of the large office commercial construction market.

  • HVAC electricity savings are estimated to be 25%, corresponding to 12% of total building electricity consumption. Natural gas heating savings are estimated to be 41% of heating energy.

    • Fan energy represents between 20% to 50% of total HVAC electrical energy use, or 10% to 30% of the total building electrical energy usage, which can be more than the chiller energy use. The Design Guide recommendations can reduce the fan energy by 50% or more, achieving total building electrical energy savings on the order of 12%.

    • Electricity savings of approximately 1.5 kWh/ft2-yr and natural gas savings of 8.5 kBtu/ft2-yr are predicted for the measures in the Advanced VAV System Design Guide (Design Guide) compared to current standard practice. The corresponding annual utility cost savings are about $0.20/ft2 for electricity and $0.07/ft2 for gas, based on 2003 PG&E rates.

    • Fan-only peak day electric demand reaches between 0.5 and 1.0 W/ft2. Following the Design Guide recommendations could provide a modest reduction in demand due to better duct design and lower overall pressure drop, but most of the measures affect part-load efficiency.

  • Most systems operate at part load the majority of the time. Systems and controls must be designed to be efficient across the full range of operation. This can be achieved by carefully sizing the system components (e.g., terminal units) to make sure they provide comfort and code-required ventilation while limiting the fan and reheat energy at part load. It also requires integrating the controls at the zone to the controls at the air-handling unit and cooling/heating plants to make the system respond efficiently to changes in demand.

  • Key design principles to achieve energy savings identified in Design Guide:

    1. Reduce design system static pressure.

    2. Employ demand-based static pressure reset.

    3. Use low-pressure plenum returns with relief fans.

    4. Employ demand-based, supply temperature reset to reduce reheat energy and extend economizer effectiveness.

    5. Design fan systems to turn down and stage efficiently.

    6. Optimally size terminal units to balance the energy impacts of pressure drop and minimum air flow control.

    7. Set terminal unit minimums as low as required for ventilation and use intelligent VAV box control schemes to prevent stratification during heating.

    8. Employ demand-based ventilation controls for high-density occupancies.

    9. Design conference rooms and other high-density occupancies to provide ventilation without excessive fan energy or reheat.

    10. Design 24/7 loads to allow efficient system turn down and use of economizer cooling.

  • Early design issues are most critical. Optimal performance of the HVAC system depends on the integration of the design with the other building components during the early phases of building design. The Design Guide focuses on the following early design issues to be addressed: integrated design, simulation, system selection, location and size of air shafts, establishment of the return air path, provisions of auxiliary and 24/7 loads, selection of design air-side supply temperature, determination of code ventilation requirements, determination of actual internal loads, and establishment of performance targets.


  • Advanced VAV System Design Guide (Design Guide). The researchers found that large savings opportunities exist at the design stage. To promote efficient, practical designs that advance standard practice the project team developed the Design Guide the addresses the following areas: early design issues; zone issues; VAV box; ducts and fittings; fan outlet conditions/air handler design; fan type, size and control; coils and filters; and outside air/return air/exhaust air control.

The Design Guide is targeted to HVAC designers and summarizes the most important data and design recommendations based on the research results. The Design Guide was written to give them reasonable and credible recommendations for creating systems that capture the energy savings and performance opportunities and at the same time feel comfortable that system results will meet client expectations.

  • California utilities are promoting the project’s findings. Element 3 results and Design Guide will be presented at an October 2003 training session at PG&E’s Pacific Energy Center. The utilities are considering the PIER results for future Energy Design Resources Briefs.

  • New fan system performance model and industry publishing. The team developed a new model that more accurately represents fan system performance than the models in current simulation programs. This model is a good match to manufacturer’s data and was used along with the monitored fan data to inform many of the Design Guide recommendations.

Team members published an article about PIER results and the fan model in the May 2003 issue of HPAC Engineering Magazine and will present the model at the national ASHRAE conference in January 2004. There has been considerable excitement about the new fan model within the ASHRAE community. In addition, a researcher working on another PIER project is already using the fan model in his simulations, and an EQuest/DOE2.2 software developer has expressed interest in using the fan model in their simulation engine.

  • Title 24. PIER findings on static pressure reset, sensor location and fan power sizing modified the prescriptive requirements for space conditioning systems in the California 2005 Building Energy Efficiency Standards (Title 24).

Estimated Statewide Energy Impacts

The California Energy Commission predicts large office building construction volume of about 30 million square feet per year over the next ten years, equal to 20% of new construction in California. A reasonable estimate is that about one-half of those buildings will be served by VAV reheat systems. Therefore, the Design Guide will apply to roughly 150 million square feet of new buildings built in the ten-year period between 2003 and 2012.

The researchers applied annual energy savings estimates of 12% combined with a market penetration of 10% of the large commercial office space with VAV reheat systems over each of the next 10 years. This is equal to 5% penetration of all large commercial office space. If the best practices recommended in the Design Guide were implemented, first-year statewide electricity savings are estimated to be 2,220 MWh/yr for new construction. Savings would reach 22,200 MWh/yr at the end of 10 years, and the cumulative electricity savings over that time would be 122,100 MWh equal to a cumulative cost savings of $16.7 million.

First year natural gas savings would be 127,000 therms resulting in a cumulative gas savings over ten years of 6,980,000 therms equal to a cost savings of $5.8 million. The total net energy benefits over ten years to citizens of California would be $22.5 million.

Integrated Design of Small Commercial HVAC Systems (Element 4)

This research project conducted field surveys and short-term monitoring of packaged heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems up to 10 tons per unit and identified problems with equipment, controls, distribution systems, and operation and maintenance practices that lead to poor system performance.


The objective was to establish baseline data on the number and type of small commercial HVAC systems, identify the key problems in the efficiency and performance of these units, and create design solutions to address those problems. The specific technical objective was to increase the energy efficiency and functionality of small commercial HVAC systems by 10%.

Findings & Conclusions

  • Small HVAC Systems in California:

    • Single package direct expansion (DX) air conditioners are the most popular HVAC system type in new construction in the state, cooling about 44% of the total floor space.

    • In terms of number of systems installed, the most popular packaged DX system size is 5 tons.

    • Units between 1 and 10 tons represent close to 90% of the total unit sales in new buildings in California.

    • Units 10 tons and smaller represent about 58% of the total packaged DX cooling capacity in the state.

  • System performance problems are widespread. The field study consisted of site inspections, occupant interviews and short-term monitoring at 75 sites, which included a total of 215 HVAC units. In addition, the researchers conducted a series of one-time tests on various aspects of the units’ operation. The researchers identified a number of problems (% of units) with the HVAC systems, including economizers not operating properly (64%), improper refrigerant charge (46%), fans running during unoccupied periods (30%), fan that cycle on and off with a call for heating and cooling rather than providing continuous ventilation air (38%), low air flow (39%), no outside air (8%), actual fan power 20% greater than Title 24, and simultaneous heating and cooling (8%).

  • These problems impact building electrical energy performance by an estimated 8 % and building natural gas energy performance by an estimated 30%.

  • The problem of cycling fans and the impact on ventilation rates was not previously documented per our research reviews.

  • Numerous opportunities exist for improving efficiency. Opportunities include improved economizer designs for better reliability and control; design features such as thermostatic expansion devices that maintain unit efficiency over a range of refrigerant charge and air flow rates; improved air-side efficiency; on-board fault detection and diagnostic systems; and the use of thermostats appropriate for commercial applications.

  • Equipment manufacturers can improve performance through product design changes and reliability improvements. Although many installation problems can be corrected during commissioning, and some reliability problems can be corrected during normal operations and maintenance, it may be more effective to address these problems at the product design level. Improved equipment that is actively promoted by energy-efficiency and market transformation programs could reduce energy costs for end-users and increase sales opportunities for manufacturers of small rooftop systems.

  • Reduction in system size on the order of 40% and reduction in annual energy costs on the order of 25% to 30% are possible with simple integrated design strategies.

  • Key actions designers can take to improve the performance of small HVAC systems include:

    • Practice load avoidance strategies such as reduced lighting power, high-performance glass and skylights, cool roofs, and improved roof insulation techniques in the overall building design.

    • Size units appropriately using ASHRAE-approved methods that account for the load avoidance strategies implemented in the design, and use reasonable assumptions on plug load power and ventilation air quantities when sizing equipment.

    • Select unit size and air flow based on calculated sensible loads without oversizing. Consider increasing unit flow rate to improve sensible capacity in dry climates.

    • Specify units that meet CEE Tier 2 efficiency standards and incorporate premium efficiency fan motors, thermostatic expansion valves and factory-installed and run-tested economizers.

    • Design distribution systems with lower velocities to reduce pressure drop and noise. Seal and insulate duct systems located outside the building thermal envelope.

    • Operate ventilation systems continuously to provide adequate ventilation air. Incorporate demand-controlled ventilation to reduce heating and cooling loads.

    • Specify commercial-grade thermostats with the capability to schedule fan operation and heating and cooling setpoints independently.

    • Commission the systems prior to occupancy through a combination of checklists and functional testing of equipment control, economizer operation, air flow rate, and fan power.

    • Develop clear expectations about the services provided by HVAC maintenance personnel.


  • Small Commercial HVAC System Design Guide (Design Guide). The Design Guide provides solutions and recommendations for improving the performance of small commercial rooftop units. This document focuses on actions architects, engineers, and design/build contractors can take to improve the energy efficiency of small HVAC systems, reduce operating costs, and improve indoor comfort and environmental quality.

  • CEE HECAC Initiative. Element 4 and the New Buildings Institute collaborated with the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) and their High Efficiency Commercial Air Conditioning Committee (HECAC) to develop a draft national, next-generation performance specification for small commercial, integrated rooftop HVAC systems. This specification is now the basis of ongoing discussions with efficiency program managers as a possible public benefits or utility program requirement.

  • Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) Engagement.Through the CEE effort the project team began direct discussions with the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) to solicit manufacturer feedback and modifications to the spec and to move toward the design of a more advanced unit. The research team developed a brief report (Manufacturers’ White Paper)to encourage manufacturers to address some of the problems identified during the course of this project. The ARI has committed to addressing improved performance opportunities through their technical committee and national meetings in late 2003. Members have also offered to participate in the assessment of an advanced unit in the next phase of PIER work.

  • Title 24-Acceptance Requirements.Element 4’s field findings contributed to the Institute’s Nonresidential Acceptance Requirements proposal to the California 2005 Title 24 Standards.

  • Title 24-Duct Leakage and Insulation. Element 4’s analysis work supported the Nonresidential Duct Sealing and Insulation proposal through PG&E’s Codes and Standards Enhancement (CASE) initiative.

  • California utilities are promoting the project’s results. Energy Design Resources (EDR) funded the project team’s development of a design brief-an abbreviated version of the Design Guide-which is now published on the EDR website (www.energydesignresources.com). PG&E’s Pacific Energy Center hosted a training session in May 2003 to communicate E4’s results to design professionals.

Estimated Statewide Energy Impacts

First year savings of 6,942 MWh are expected based on a 10% market penetration.  Using an increase of market penetration of 1% per year over the next ten years, the cumulative savings over the next ten years will be 496,360 MWh equal to a cumulative cost savings of $68 million. These calculations use a figure of 39.7 million square feet per year for commercial buildings using packaged units of less than 10 tons (~25% of new commercial construction).

Natural gas savings are estimated to be 97,107 therms first year savings resulting in a cumulative 10 year savings of 6,980,000 therms and a resulting cost savings of $5.8 million.

The total net energy benefits over ten years to citizens of California would be $73.8 million.

Statewide demand savings are estimated at 1,486 kW per year (1.5 MW) based on a first year market penetration of 10%. With an increase in market penetration of 1% per year, the demand savings in year ten is 21.5 MW.

Integrated Design of Commercial Building Ceiling Systems (Element 5)

This Element was designed to fill research information gaps related to the use of skylights in commercial buildings and to develop design protocols that facilitate ceiling-system integration and minimize energy use.


This research program consisted of three related projects with distinct objectives:

  1. Determine the energy effectiveness of lay-in insulation used with T-bar ceilings.

  2. Conduct comprehensive testing of representative skylight U-factors, SHGC, visible light transmission and photometrics to better understand and provide data on the performance of skylights and light wells in commercial buildings.

  3. Develop integrated ceiling-system design guidelines for quality lighting (including daylight) and energy savings.

The findings and outcomes for each of these projects is discussed separately below.

Effectiveness of Lay-In Insulation

The researchers surveyed commercial buildings to identify how many have lay-in insulation and what fraction of the original lay-in insulation remains in place, researched application and cost issues of lay-in insulation versus alternative insulation methods, and calculated the energy and energy-cost impacts of these approaches.

Findings & Conclusions

T-bar ceilings are ineffective as a pressure or infiltration barrier in a building. Therefore lay-in insulation is less effective compared to insulation at a pressure boundary such as a hard ceiling or roof deck. Most field inspections showed that 10% to 40% of the ceiling area had no lay-in insulation. In most situations, it is cost effective to insulate the roof deck rather than use lay-in insulation.


  • Title 24. The study resulted in a recommendation that the California 2005 Title 24 Standards prohibit use of lay-in insulation over suspended ceilings for thermal insulation, except for small spaces under plenums that are taller than 12 ft. The proposal encountered little resistance; the Commission staff has supported it, and adoption is anticipated.

  • California utilities are promoting project’s results. E5 results were presented at a PG&E Pacific Energy Center (PEC) training session in June 2003 titled "Integrated Skylights and Electric Lighting in Commercial Ceiling Systems," and at a November 2002 general training on skylighting design. Also, in June 2002 the PEC hosted a training session on the use of the PIER photometric files. The project results were also included in spring 2003 and fall 2002 training sessions on the SkyCalc program by Heschong Mahone Group at Southern California Edison’s Customer Technology Applications Center (CTAC), and will likely continue to be part of ongoing presentations. The utilities are considering the PIER results for future Energy Design Resources Briefs.

Comprehensive Skylight Testing

The researchers developed new test protocols and conducted tests on various skylight and light-well combinations that are common in commercial construction. There were three separate sets of testing activities for U-factor, SHGC and visible transmittance. The project team also developed photometric data for nine skylights with different light-well geometries.

Findings & Conclusions

  • NFRC test methods for U-factor need to be updated for projecting skylights. The current method of using a flat CTS (calibration transfer standard) results in erroneous results. Projecting skylights (domed glazing, arch or compound parabolic glazing, and pyramidal glazing) can be tested using the prior area weighted method for measuring the air film resistances. Also, building simulation algorithms should include the capability to account for the ratio of surface area to projected area. Currently simulation models assume this ratio is always 1.0. Making this change would allow better modeling of the air film heat transfer coefficients on projecting skylights.

  • The research confirmed the benefit of light wells and insulation on light wells for reducing solar heat gain through the skylight system.

  • The effective visible transmittance (EVT) of projecting (dome) skylights stays nearly constant over a range of solar angles, whereas the EVT of flat-glass skylights rapidly drops off as solar elevation decreases. This is significant because daylight is most needed at times when the sun angle is low. In DOE-2 and other simulation programs, it would be more accurate to model projecting skylights with a constant transmittance instead of modeling them as if they were flat-glass skylights. The study also determined that the ASTM D1003 test method for haze provides an adequate method for predicting the diffusion of skylight glazing.

  • The proposed National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) method of rating the transmittance of tubular skylights overestimates the transmittance of these devices for most of the year and creates an uneven playing field between tubular skylights and projecting unit skylights.

  • Photometric data can be produced for skylight systems. This project conducted new photometric tests and created the associated files for 22 skylight/light-well combinations. Almost all electric light fixtures sold in the United States have a photometric report, which allows one to calculate how the light fixtures distribute light in a room, but until now, measured photometric information was not readily available for skylights.


  • Title 24. These studies led to a proposal for a revised definition of the daylit zone and a proposal for a revised spacing criterion for skylights in the 2005 Title 24 Standards. Adoption of the proposal will result in improved daylighting quality.

  • Improved modeling of projecting skylights. The EVT of projecting skylights can be measured by the test procedure developed for this project, but cannot be measured by the standard visible transmittance test procedure currently used by the NFRC. The current NFRC method of rating transmittance of skylights can only rate flat skylights; this places projecting skylights at a disadvantage as they cannot quality for an Energy Star rating. This is unfortunate because in many cases the projecting skylights have better visible light transmission characteristics than flat skylights for low sun angles.

  • Skylight rating systems. Element 5’s (E5’s) findings have been presented to the NFRC. As a result, NFRC is considering reevaluating their rating system for tubular skylights (also known as tubular daylighting devices, or TDDs). Also, the U-factor results may have some effect on how NFRC rates skylights. E5 staff has also contacted the developers of SkyVision and identified that their product may solve the modeling problem. The project leader also provided Energy Star program staff with the research and modeling results.

  • Photometrics.

    • Data for lighting designers. Lighting designers now have the same predictive tools for designing with skylight/light-well combinations as they do for electric lighting. The team has applied the photometric data to the IESNA’s LM63-1995 format that can be easily integrated into existing lighting software tools. Lighting Analysts, a lighting software manufacturer, intends to include the photometric files in their AGI-32 software. Other lighting software manufacturers, including the producers of SkyVision, have indicated interest in incorporating PIER photometric results in their products.

    • Development of a new cost-effective method and facility for testing the photometrics of skylights that is accurate and repeatable. Some skylight manufacturers purchased additional photometric testing services and will use the data to market their skylights to major clients. One skylight manufacturer has set up a photometric test facility based upon the design developed in this PIER project. They intend to use the test facility for product development and marketing materials (photometric files).

    • IESNA Test Standards. E5 submitted this test methodology to the IESNA Computer Committee for adoption by IESNA as part of their test standards. The IESNA LM63 "standard Format for Electronic Transfer of Photometric data" should be updated to contain predefined keywords so that skylight-specific information is contained in the file header. This allows one to make lighting predictions with the photometric files for other locations and other times of the year than when the test data was collected.

Integrated Ceiling System Design Guidelines

The project team conducted research and analysis to identify best practices for integrating skylight/light-well systems with suspended ceilings. The team built on the findings of the lay-in insulation research and comprehensive skylight testing, and conducted additional research, including visiting manufacturers, analyzing the issues that drive ceiling system specification, researching applicable codes, and investigating likely combinations of building components for existing interconnection protocols and standards.

Findings & Conclusions

  • Splayed light wells allow skylights to be spaced further apart, thereby reducing installation costs and minimizing risks associated with roof penetrations.

  • Modular light wells are desirable due to cost and performance predictability and better finish appearance.

  • Light wells substantially reduce the solar heat gain through the bottom of the light well, but a substantial fraction of heat goes sideways through the light well.

  • There is a market interest and demand for modular skylight products and design recommendations.


  • Design Guidelines for Skylights with Suspended Ceilings (Design Guidelines). The Design Guidelines provides designers and project managers with guidelines for incorporating skylights with light wells in commercial buildings. It discusses the design process, implications of different design solutions, and code- and performance-related issues. Following the recommendations of the Design Guidelines will result in the effective installation of skylight systems that provide optimal energy performance and superior lighting quality.

Designers can use the information in the Design Guidelines to create a custom skylight/light-well system for their projects. In addition, the Design Guidelines’ valuable coordination and integration information will help facilitate the designers work with other construction professionals. For the manufacturer, the Design Guidelines communicate system design, component requirements, code and performance metrics, and market information about modular skylight systems and the market benefits of providing such a product.

  • Skylight manufacturers. As a result of E5’s studies, several skylight manufacturers are considering product design modifications, and one manufacturer is building a prototype modular light well.

  • California utilities are promoting project’s results. E5 results were presented at a PG&E Pacific Energy Center (PEC) training session in June 2003 titled "Integrated Skylights and Electric Lighting in Commercial Ceiling Systems," and at a November 2002 general training on skylighting design. Also, in June 2002 the PEC hosted a training session on the use of the PIER photometric files. The project results were also included in spring 2003 and fall 2002 training sessions on the SkyCalc program by Heschong Mahone Group at Southern California Edison’s Customer Technology Applications Center  (CTAC), and will likely continue to be part of ongoing presentations.

Estimated Statewide Energy Impacts

Productivity and Interior Environments (Element 2 above) addresses daylight energy savings associated with an increased use of skylighting and lighting controls in California.

The potential market specific to modular skylight-well products includes the building types that can take advantage of daylight benefits and that require the use of suspended ceiling systems. These building types - low-rise commercial buildings such as offices, retail spaces, grocery stores, and schools - make up 54% of all new and retrofit construction in California. With an estimated total annual commercial construction market of 156 million ft2 in California, this results in a potential market of the target building types of 84.8 million ft2 a year. Of the potential target buildings, 16.5 million ft2 a year are constructed with T-bar ceilings located under the roof and could be impacted by the use of the Design Guidelines.

Based on this market size for the Design Guidelines, first year electricity savings of 1,614 MWh are expected based on a 10% market penetration.  Using an increase of market penetration of 1% per year over the next ten years, the cumulative electricity savings over the next ten years will be 115,429 MWh equal to a cumulative cost savings of $16 million.

Integrated Design of Residential Ducting & Air Flow Systems (Element 6)

Poorly performing residential duct systems installed in unconditioned space can have a significant effect on energy use and comfort. This research project was designed to develop realistic alternatives that would bring the ductwork within the conditioned building envelope.


This Element’s objective was to provide information sufficient to allow the Commission to evaluate means of including ducts in homes’ conditioned space for future revisions of the energy code, and to inform builders about the construction changes needed to build homes with ducts in conditioned space.

Findings & Conclusions

  • Building houses with ducts in conditioned space is technically feasible and can be done at fairly small cost increments with valuable returns in energy savings and delivered comfort.

  • Three approaches are recommended for constructing California houses with ducts located in conditioned space: 1) a "Dropped Ceiling" within portions of the house to contain the ductwork; 2) a "Cathedralized Attic" design that moves the insulation to the roof plane and removes attic venting, creating a semi-conditioned space above the ceiling; and 3) the Plenum Truss approach, which uses a modified scissors truss to create space for the ducts between the ceiling and the bottom chord of the truss that is then inside the conditioned space.

  • Cost impact to the builder is 0% to 3% of construction costs. Of the three recommended approaches, the Dropped Ceiling and Cathedralized Attic designs will result in the lowest construction cost increase, ranging from zero to 1% respectively. The Plenum Truss approach is estimated to add between 1.5% and 3% to construction costs. In addition, the three approaches may, in some cases, allow the heating and cooling equipment to be downsized, which could offset some of the construction cost increases or even result in an overall decrease in construction costs.

  • Significant energy savings and energy-cost savings can be achieved by building houses with ducts in conditioned space. The approach used-Cathedralized Attic, Dropped Ceiling, or Plenum Truss-has less of an impact on savings than does the house size or the climate.

    • Estimated annual electric energy savings range from a low of 1% (176 kWh) for a townhouse built with the Plenum Truss design to a high of 19% (5420 kWh) for a single-story detached house built with the Dropped Ceiling design.

    • Annual net energy cost savings per housing unit range from no savings for a townhouse using the Cathedralized Attic approach to a high of $1,285 for a two-story detached house using the Dropped Ceiling approach.

    • Annual savings vary greatly by climate zone and on whether the house uses normal leakage ducting (22% of system airflow) or a low leakage duct system (6% of system airflow).

    • Heating energy increases slightly with the Cathedralized Attic approach and, to a lesser extent, the Plenum Truss approach. This is due to the increase in insulated envelope area that results from moving the insulation up to the roof (Cathedralized Attic) or up to an intermediate location between the attic floor and roof (Plenum Truss).

    • All three approaches are cost effective in almost all housing types and climate zones with normal leakage ducting. For low duct leakage houses, the Dropped Ceiling approach is cost effective in most of the single family and some of the townhouse types, the Cathedralized Attic is only cost effective in some of the single family types, and the Plenum Truss approach is not cost effective.


  • Home Builders Guide to Ducts in Conditioned Space (Builder’s Guide). The Builder’s Guide provides builders, contractors and subcontractors with sufficient detail so that they can modify their existing house designs and build them successfully with ducts in conditioned space. The Builder’s Guide describes construction techniques, provide technical diagrams, address market barriers, and give summarized cost and savings information.

  • Market barriers report. The researchers developed a report that identifies barriers to the market acceptance of building homes with ducts in conditioned space, and provides strategies that may be used to overcome these barriers.

  • Code official’s guide. This document provides technical information that builders can present to a code official when requesting a variance to build a house that follows one of the recommended approaches to putting ducts in conditioned space.

  • Homeowners’ benefits. This is a brief marketing piece that explains to homeowners the benefits of placing ducts in conditioned space.

  • Technical information report. This summarizes the recommended approaches and describes associated costs, savings and market barriers. This report was specifically developed as a resource for the Commission and technical audiences.

  • Industry Distribution. The Building Industry Institute (BII), a program of the California Building Industry Association, has expressed interest in incorporated E6’s findings in a BII protocol on ducts in conditioned space, and may publish E6’s Guide for Builders on their website. DOE’s Building America program plans to distribute the Guide for Builders through their widely used website on residential construction.

Estimated Statewide Energy Impacts

First year savings of 266 MWh and ten year cumulative savings of 178,768 MWh are expected from the adoption of the ducts in conditioned space building techniques. There is a minor ten year penalty in gas consumption of 364,000 therms. These numbers are based on the California new construction market of 155,000 houses per year and a 0.1% penetration the first year ramping to a 10% penetration in year 10. The savings estimates are based on the current averages of 30% of housing built with low leakage ducts and 70% built with normal leakage ducts. The ten year cumulative electric energy savings is $23.2 million with a small increase in gas use equal to $328,000 resulting in a net energy cumulative savings of $22.9 million.

California Outdoor Lighting Baseline Assessment (Element 7)

This research project was the first major study of outdoor lighting in California.


This Element’s objectives were to fill gaps in knowledge about outdoor lighting in California by identifying current design practices and estimating the energy demand and consumption of current statewide practices, providing outdoor lighting baseline information to inform the 2005 Title 24 Standards development, and providing a framework for future investigations into outdoor lighting practices in California.

Findings & Conclusions

  • The statewide commercial and industrial outdoor lighting annual energy consumption is estimated to be 3,067 GWh. This is roughly 1.35% of the total statewide annual energy consumption of 227,087 GWh reported for 2001 by the California Independent System Operator (ISO).

Commercial outdoor lighting accounts for 3% of the California nighttime energy use of 101,773 GWh in 2001. The maximum peak demand from commercial outdoor lighting is 809 MW, and occurs in the winter from 7 PM to 8 PM. This winter peak is slightly higher than the summer peak due to the operation of winter resorts (closed during the summer) and due to school recreation areas not in use in the summer.

  • The commercial outdoor lighting peak demand is 2.63% of the total California system load of 30,788 MW for the peak hour, calculated using California ISO data (the peak demand in February 2002, for the hour ending at 8 PM).

  • This research resulted in extensive data on the types of lamps and fixtures installed at each site. For example, 57.7% of all outdoor lamps in apartments and condominiums are compact fluorescent lamps. Incandescent lamps represent 30.8% of all lamps installed across all functional use areas (parking lots, walkways, security areas, etc.). Approximately 48% of parking lots have high pressure sodium lamps. This body of information provides a valuable snapshot of the commercial and industrial outdoor lighting in California, incorporating data from a range of business types and geographic areas.

  • The California Outdoor Lighting Baseline Assessment provides extensive data on lighting power density (LPD) levels by building type, functional use area and lighting zone. This data is likely to prove valuable to researchers and analysts who wish to evaluate the potential energy savings from improving commercial outdoor lighting design practices.


  • Outdoor lighting assessment method and tool. The researchers developed an Outdoor Lighting Assessment Tool, which consisted of various modules essential to conducting an effective survey. This included classroom and field training of surveyors; instrumentation including a camera, a light meter and attachments, and a measuring wheel; and an Onsite Survey Manual with luminaire and lamp information, survey procedures, and a luminaire catalog; and an Onsite Survey Instrument that provided a format for recording the required daytime and nighttime onsite data.

  • Informing standards. The results of this survey will provide information for ongoing discussions of program and code options for addressing outdoor lighting energy use. The research has already influenced nationwide discussions of exterior lighting. Some examples follow.

    • California outdoor lighting standard. Work is currently underway to develop a Title 24 outdoor lighting standard for California, informed in part by Element 7’s research.

    • Model Lighting Ordinance. A consortium of lighting experts and entities, lead by the International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) is developing a Model Lighting Ordinance (MLO). As the Commission develops a scientific basis for outdoor lighting regulation, based in part on Element 7’s research, the MLO Task Force will incorporate results as appropriate to the outdoor lighting section of their national model ordinance.

    • Washington State and City of Seattle outdoor lighting standards. This project’s findings are being reviewed to expand category definitions and characteristics for exterior lighting requirements.

    • Lighting industry design guidelines and standards.Team members are involved in IESNA and ASHRAE and will present E7 information for consideration to technical committees regarding outdoor lighting energy baselines and the predominance of specific equipment. This information will provide input to key lighting design guides such as the IESNA handbooks and recommended practice guidelines, the ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1 lighting standards, and the Advanced Lighting Guidelines.

  • Repeatable methodology. This research has created an excellent foundation for more specific studies by providing a repeatable methodology for targeted data collection and by establishing a set of results from which to design more specific inquiries.

Estimated Statewide Energy Impacts

Statewide energy savings scenarios were not a part of the technical results. Quantifying outdoor lighting’s energy consumption and demand provides the state of California and utilities with a foundation for establishing regulatory and voluntary approaches to modifying energy use in this sector.

Table of Contents


Executive Summary


1.0 Introduction

1.1. Team

1.2. Elements

1.3. Organization Chart

1.4. Report Organization

2.0 Productivity and Interior Environments (Element 2)

2.1. Introduction

2.1.1. Project Team and Technical Advisory Group (TAG)

2.2. Daylighting in Schools: Grade Effect and Teacher Assignment (Project 2.2 “Reanalysis Report”)

2.2.1. Introduction

2.2.2. Approach

2.2.3. Technical Outcomes

2.3. Daylighting and Retail Sales: Replication Study (Project 2.3)

2.3.1. Introduction

2.3.2. Approach

2.3.3. Technical Outcomes

2.4. Healthy Schools: Daylighting, Lighting, and Ventilation (Project 2.4)

2.4.1. Introduction

2.4.2. Approach

2.4.3. Technical Outcomes

2.5. Healthy Offices: Daylighting, Lighting and Ventilation (Project 2.6)

2.5.1. Introduction

2.5.2. Approach

2.5.3. Technical Outcomes

2.6. Conclusions and Recommendations

2.6.1. Conclusions

2.6.2. Commercialization Potential Or Commercialization Initiated

2.6.3. Recommendations

2.6.4. Benefits to California

3.0 Integrated Design of Large Commercial HVAC Systems (Element 3)

3.1. Introduction

3.1.1. Element Objectives

3.1.2. Project Team and Technical Advisory Group (TAG)

3.2. Field Studies (Project 3.2)

3.2.1. Objectives

3.2.2. Approach

3.2.3. Technical Outcomes

3.3. Building Science Solutions (Project 3.3)

3.3.1. Objectives

3.3.2. Approach

3.3.3. Technical Outcomes

3.4. Statewide Energy Estimate (Project 3.4)

3.4.1. Objectives

3.4.2. Approach

3.4.3. Technical Outcomes

3.5. Design Guidelines for Integrated Design Solutions (Project 3.6)

3.5.1. Objectives

3.5.2. Approach

3.5.3. Technical Outcomes

3.6. Conclusions and Recommendations

3.6.1. Conclusions

3.6.2. Commercialization Potential Or Commercialization Initiated

3.6.3. Recommendations

3.6.4. Benefits to California

4.0 Integrated Design of Small Commercial HVAC Systems (Element 4)

4.1. Introduction

4.1.1. Element Objectives

4.1.2. Project Team and Technical Advisory Group (TAG)

4.2. Background Research (Project 4.3)

4.2.1. Project Objectives

4.2.2. Approach

4.2.3. Technical Outcomes

4.3. Field Surveys (Project 4.4)

4.3.1. Project Objectives

4.3.2. Approach

4.3.3. Technical Outcomes

4.4. Analysis and Statewide Estimates (Project 4.5)

4.4.1. Project Objectives

4.4.2. Approach

4.4.3. Technical Outcomes

4.5. Building Science Solutions (Project 4.6)

4.5.1. Project Objectives

4.5.2. Approach

4.5.3. Technical Outcomes

4.6. Design and Integration Solutions (Project 4.7)

4.6.1. Project Objectives

4.6.2. Approach

4.6.3. Technical Outcomes

4.7. Conclusions and Recommendations

4.7.1. Conclusions

4.7.2. Commercialization Potential Or Commercialization Initiated

4.7.3. Recommendations

4.7.4. Benefits to California

5.0 Integrated Design of Commercial Building Ceiling Systems (Element 5)

5.1. Introduction

5.1.1. Element Objectives

5.1.2. Project Team and Technical Advisory Group (TAG)

5.2. Effectiveness of Lay-In Insulation (Project 5.2)

5.2.1. Introduction

5.2.2. Project Objectives

5.2.3. Approach

5.2.4. Technical Outcomes

5.3. Comprehensive Skylight Testing (Project 5.3)

5.3.1. Introduction

5.3.2. Project Objectives

5.3.3. Approach

5.3.4. Technical Outcomes

5.3.5. Conclusions

5.4. Integrated Ceiling System for Lighting Quality and Energy Savings (Project 5.4)

5.4.1. Introduction

5.4.2. Project Objectives

5.4.3. Approach

5.4.4. Technical Outcomes

5.5. Conclusions and Recommendations

5.5.1. Conclusions

5.5.2. Commercialization Potential Or Commercialization Initiated

5.5.3. Recommendations

5.5.4. Benefits to California

6.0 Integrated Design of Residential Ducting & Air Flow Systems (Element 6)

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Element Objectives

6.3. Development of Alternative Construction Approaches (Project 6.3)

6.3.1. Introduction

6.3.2. Project Objectives

6.3.3. Approach

6.3.4. Technical Outcomes

6.4. Identification & Approach to Resolution of Market Barriers (Project 6.4)

6.4.1. Introduction

6.4.2. Project Objectives

6.4.3. Approach

6.4.4. Technical Outcomes

6.5. Develop Cost Data (Project 6.5)

6.5.1. Introduction

6.5.2. Project Objectives

6.5.3. Approach

6.5.4. Technical Outcomes

6.6. Estimate of Energy Savings of Various Approaches (Project 6.6)

6.6.1. Introduction

6.6.2. Project Objectives

6.6.3. Approach

6.6.4. Technical Outcomes

6.7. Conclusions and Recommendations

6.7.1. Conclusions

6.7.2. Commercialization Potential Or Commercialization Initiated

6.7.3. Recommendations

6.7.4. Benefits to California

7.0 California Outdoor Lighting Baseline Assessment (Element 7)

7.1. Introduction

7.1.1. Element Objectives

7.1.2. Project Team and Technical Advisory Group (TAG)

7.2. Background Review and Project Work Plan (Project 7.2)

7.2.1. Project Objectives

7.2.2. Approach

7.2.3. Technical Outcomes

7.3. Initial Market Characterization (Project 7.3)

7.3.1. Project Objectives

7.3.2. Approach

7.3.3. Technical Outcomes

7.4. Critical Analysis (Project 7.4)

7.4.1. Project Objectives

7.4.2. Approach

7.4.3. Technical Outcomes

7.5. Survey and Analytical Methodology (Project 7.5)

7.5.1. Project Objectives

7.5.2. Approach

7.5.3. Technical Outcomes

7.6. Statewide Assessment (Project 7.6)

7.6.1. Project Objectives

7.6.2. Approach

7.6.3. Technical Outcomes

7.7. Conclusions and Recommendations

7.7.1. Conclusions

7.7.2. Commercialization Potential Or Commercialization Initiated

7.7.3. Recommendations

7.7.4. Benefits to California

8.0 Glossary

9.0 Attachments

9.1. Summary Attachments

9.2. Technical Attachments

List of Figures

Figure 1: PIER Program Team Organization Chart

Figure 2. Onsite Survey Results by Chiller Capacity (ft2/ton)

Figure 3. Onsite Survey Results by Floor Area (ft2)

Figure 4. Onsite Survey Results by Chiller Capacity (tons)

Figure 5. Estimated Range of Energy Cost Impact for Each Measure (100,000 ft2 office building)

Figure 6. Overview of Design Guide Contents

Figure 7. Cooling System Type Distribution by Floor Space

Figure 8. Distribution of DX System Types by Number of Systems

Figure 9. Distribution of DX System Types by Installed Capacity

Figure 10. Distribution of Packaged DX System Size by Number of Systems

Figure 11. Distribution of Packaged DX System Size by Installed Capacity

Figure 12. Cumulative Distribution of Packaged DX System Size by Installed Capacity

Figure 13. Number of Sites Surveyed, By Building Type

Figure 14. Frequency Of Problems Encountered On Small Commercial HVAC Systems

Figure 15. Frequency Distribution Of Refrigerant Charge.

Figure 16. Frequency Distribution Of Unit Air Flow Rate

Figure 17. Frequency Distribution Of Unit External Static Pressure

Figure 18. Effective Ventilation Rate For HVAC Units With Continuous And Cycling Fans

Figure 19. Example Of Maintenance Problems Revealed During Field Surveys

Figure 20. Impacts of Integrated Design on HVAC System Size

Figure 21. Impacts of Integrated Design on Energy Cost

Figure 22. Surveyor Accessing Plenum Space Above The Dropped Ceiling

Figure 23. Fraction Of Ceiling Uninsulated Compared To Building Age

Figure 24. Problems With Lay-In Insulation Coverage

Figure 25. Two Examples Of Displaced Lay-In Insulation In The Plenum

Figure 26. Insulation Under Roof Deck With Insulated Plenum Walls

Figure 27. Photo And Diagram Of U-Factor Test Chamber

Figure 28. Cut-Away Isometric Of The Skylight Solar Calorimeter Test System (SSCTS)

Figure 29. Effect Of Well Height On Internal Heat Gain

Figure 30. Effective Visible Transmittance Of Various Skylights Over Varying Sun Angles

Figure 31. Skylight Photometrics Used To Evaluate Skylight Placement Over Retail Displays

Figure 32. Fixed-Splay; Flexible Throat

Figure 33. Adjustable Splay; Fixed-Metal Throat

Figure 34. Fixed Splay, Tubular Adjustable Throat

Figure 35. Fixed Splay; Fixed Throat, Flex Connector

Figure 36. Insulating the Roof of a Cathedralized Attic

Figure 37. Dropped Ceiling Construction

Figure 38. Plenum Truss Designs

List of Tables

Table 1. Summary of Design Guide Recommendations

Table 2. HVAC and Architectural Coordination Issues

Table 3. Buildings with Small HVAC Systems

Table 4. Summary of NRNC floor space and Commission New Construction Projections

Table 5. Estimates of Statewide End-Use Consumption in New Commercial Construction

Table 6. Estimates of Energy Consumption by Small HVAC Systems

Table 7. Chief Products Developed to Address 10 Worst System Performance Problems

Table 8. Major Characteristics of the Representative Home Designs

Table 9. Construction Cost Estimate Summary ($)

Table 10. Cost Premium Best Estimate (Cost and as Percent of Total Construction Cost)

Table 11. Duct Leakage Test Results with Attic Hatch Closed

Table 12. Duct Leakage Test Results with Attic Hatch Open

Table 13. Average and Maximum Energy Savings vs. High-Leakage (22%) Base Case

Table 14. Average and Maximum Energy Savings vs. Low-Leakage (6%) Base Case

Table 15. Range of Energy Savings by Housing Type, Duct Leakage and Climate Zone (CZ)

Table 16. Cost Effectiveness of Duct Placement Construction Approaches

Table 17. Statewide Average and Maximum Energy Cost Savings

Table 18: Statewide Energy Usage by Functional Use Area (FUA)

Table 19. Site Lighting Power Density (LPD) by Building Type

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