Cost-Constrained Optimization of Energy Efficiency for Multi-family and Commercial Buildings
June 13, 2023
Energy Research and Development (500)
Electric Program Investment Charge - EPIC
David Vernon, Mazen Daher, Mark Modera
This project provides California stakeholders with cost-optimized selections of technology packages for building cost-effective and high-efficiency multi-family residential and commercial buildings. A detailed cost and energy performance analysis was used to identify measures and packages that most closely approach zero-net energy for each building type in each state climate zone. A detailed analysis of the direct and indirect carbon emissions of each building was used to estimate the additional construction cost-per-metric tons of CO2e saved by the recommended package. EnergyPlus models were developed with simulated prototype upgrades in energy efficiency, photovoltaic systems, and battery energy storage systems for various commercial and multifamily buildings. The simulation results analyzed building performance according to 2022 time-dependent value (TDV)-based cost-effectiveness, additional construction cost per metric ton CO2e reduction, and change in the operating utility bill, including eligibility for different tariffs. Policymakers should be able to use these modeling results to accelerate adopting cost-optimized measures through codes, standards, and incentive programs. Building developers and designers should be able to use the cost-benefit analysis for their building type and climate zone to inform their decisions on how to improve building designs by targeting the most TDV cost-effective measures. Moreover, the method developed and used may allow other interested stakeholders to do their own costeffectiveness analyses using the model prototypes, measures, and analysis tools developed in this project and made publicly available.