Vehicle-grid integration (VGI) refers to technologies, policies, and strategies for electric vehicle (EV) charging which alter the time, power level, or location of the charging (or discharging) in a manner that benefits the grid while still meeting drivers’ mobility needs. Examples of VGI include managed charging (also known as V1G or smart charging) and bidirectional charging (including vehicle-to-home [V2H] and vehicle-to-grid [V2G]). VGI is a key tool for achieving California’s decarbonization and electric vehicle adoption goals.
In 2012, Governor Edmund G. Brown Jr. issued Executive Order B-16-12, setting a target of getting 1.5 million zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) on California roads by 2025. To help achieve this goal, an interagency working group on ZEVs developed the 2012 ZEV Action Plan, which identified activities to advance California's ZEV goals—including the development of the 2014 California VGI Roadmap. Following the publication of the 2014 VGI Roadmap, state agencies addressed many of the recommended actions outlined in the Roadmap in various working groups, proceedings, reports, and other venues.
In 2020, Governor Gain Newsom issued Executive Order N-79-20, setting targets for 100 percent of vehicle sales or operations for multiple vehicle types to be zero-emission by 2035 or 2045. To responsibly integrate these vehicles into California’s electricity system, the CEC continues to prepare for widespread VGI through funding solicitations, planning and analysis, reporting, and EV charger deployment block grants.